Nature and Environment on Earth
“Developed countries that make up 20% of the world's population use 80% of the world's resources and at this rate pollute the world. Our world is rapidly getting dirty. Our biological diversity is decreasing. "
The world population was 1 billion 150 years ago. Now 7 billion. It is calculated that in 2050 there will be 9 billion. With the population, the world economy has grown 5 times in the last 50 years. As the population and economy grow, the damage to nature and the environment continues to grow exponentially.
Developed countries that make up 20% of the world's population use 80% of the world's resources and pollute the world at this rate. Our world is rapidly getting dirty. Our biological diversity is decreasing. The world's forests fell from 8 billion hectares to 3.6 billion hectares. Every year 20 million hectares of forest is destroyed in the world. The Rainforest is almost gone.
Two-thirds of natural resources are at stake. 10 thousand bird species in the world, 4500 mammal species, a quarter of fish and a quarter of plants are about to be destroyed. Three-quarters of agricultural genetic diversity and one-third of agricultural land were destroyed. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides upset the natural balance and polluted agricultural lands. One third of the world's land has become desert. Biodiversity has decreased by 30% globally in the last 40 years.
Fossil fuels such as oil, gas, coal, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases continue to pollute the atmosphere. The consumption of fossil fuels has increased 9 times in the last fifty years. As a result, global warming has reached dangerous levels. Thus, in the last hundred years, the world warmed by 0.7 degrees, and the oceans rose 20 cm.
20% of the glaciers melted, there was no glaciers thinned 40% and the size of Turkey. The world went through a small ice age in the 18th century. Glaciers decreased and increased, but now it cannot recover. It is estimated that the seas will rise 60 meters when Antarctica melts completely, and 7 meters when Greenland melts. Tuvala, already an island nation in the north-east of Australia, has flooded with a quarter of its population, with a quarter of its population emigrating.
The balance of the world has been disrupted with global warming. The seasons have changed, the plants have started to bloom early and the animals have started giving birth early. The migration times of birds have changed, and the hibernating animals have begun to forget about sleep. Thirst, drought, hunger, climatic migrations, natural disasters, especially hurricanes, and epidemics are at our door.
USA pollutes 36% of the atmosphere and China pollutes the rest. These countries are respectively followed by Russia, Japan and India. The pollution rate of EU countries is kind. polluting rate in Turkey is around 0.40 wt%. But it is among the fastest polluting countries.
Our country became a party to the United Nations Framework Agreement, which was established to combat climate change, in 2004. prepared based on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol for curbing this agreement Turkey became a party in 2009. However, it is noteworthy that the United States, which is the most polluting the world, did not sign the KYOTO protocol.
It is known that global warming mostly affects water resources. 40% of the world's population is in danger of drought due to the mismanagement and misuse of water. One billion people are deprived of water, 1.5 million children die from polluted water every year.
For the world population estimated to be 9 billion in 2050, 70% more food needs to be produced. At this rate, water will be consumed for production. Today, 2 to 5 tons of water is spent annually for food production that will feed a person. If it goes on like this, it is calculated that two-thirds of the world population will have trouble with thirst in 2025. In addition, 30% of food goes to waste. Thus, this much water is lost. People in the world cannot find clean water. Seas, rivers, lakes, groundwater were contaminated. Half of the wetlands in the world, which provide water balance and natural balance, have been dried. The world has lost almost half of its usable water in the last 40 years.
It is calculated that 1.5 planets will be needed to maintain people's current living and consumption habits. The phrase “ YOU WILL DROW IN YOUR OWN DROP ”, which the Indian Chief said in the 19th century, almost describes these days.
This cruel way of living, which puts an enormous pressure on biological diversity, threatens the future of all living things on Earth.